|Japan's Premier Sun-Grown and
|Like every other tea producing country Japan also has its own methods of grow-
ing, harvesting, and processing tea that are uniquely theirs. The tea bushes are
pruned in the fall and spring so that their first flush plants, ready for plucking in
May or June are all the same size and fullness in each garden.
|Most of Japan's plucking is
done with mechanical shears
or leaf harvesters, that give the rows an
arched shape which maximizes the surface
area for new growth and is easy to maintain.
Japan produces mainly green tea and has
two distinct seasons, their early growth or
spring season known as Ichiban Cha
(translates to "new tea") in April and May,
and the rest of the season's harvests.
Most of the high grade tea comes from the
famous tea gardens in Uji and Shizuoka pre-
fectures. The rare, costly teas that are
hand plucked, such as gyokuro and tencha
leaf (for matcha) also comes from these
|Japan has two distinct growing classifications for their highgrade
teas; sun-grown tea and shade-grown tea. The sun-grown method
is just as it sounds-the teas are grown under full sun for the entire
growing season. Sun grown teas are: bancha, genmaicha, guricha,
konacha, and sencha.
For shade-grown teas the tea bushes are shaded for about 20 to
30 days before harvesting. Shade-grown teas are: kabuse-cha
(considered a shade grown sencha), gyokuro (Jade Dew), and tencha (to make into high quality
Shading of tea is only done for the top
grades of gyokuro, and tencha that is made
into the most expensive ceremonial grade
The reason behind shading the tea bushes
is to increase chlorophyll production in the
plants by reducing natural photosynthesis
in the leaves. The increased green chloro-
phyll pigment changes the natural balance
of caffeine, sugars, and flavanols within the
leaf giving the tea processors room to man-
ipulate it, pulling out added sweetness.
Also the lack of photosynthesis in-
creases L-theanine, an amino acid
found naturally in tea, that adds a unique vegetal quality to the flavor, and helps coun-
teract some of the stimulant effects of caffeine, thus having a relaxing effect on the
body, yet an alert state of mind. Photosynthesis reduces L-theanine and increases
tannins, the compounds responsible for teas astringency.
Approximately 20 to 30 days before harvesting, just as the
warm spring air stimulates new leaf growth, the plants are
shaded over. There are two methods of shading known to-
gether as kanreisha, and the two styles, tana, and jikagise.
For the most expensive teas and for large gardens with huge
quantities of tea to harvest, tana is used. This is the most
elaborate form, with trellises or wire frames built over the tea
bushes, covering the rows in large sections. Black netting is placed over the frame
covering the plants from top to bottom, all the way to the ground, but leaving plenty of
room for new growth, and for workers to move about to tend and harvest the tea.
Rain is also able to filter through the netting, so the tea plants get ample moisture, while
the warmth is retained inside, creating a nurturing wet and humid environment perfect
for encouraging new leaf growth.
A small amount of dappled light (about 10%) is still able to filter
through the netting. Sometimes a thick layer of straw is added to
reduce the light even more. This step is used for the most expen-
sive grades of tencha (for matcha), and gyokuro.
The side and top tana netting can be rolled up or back for increas-
ed air circulation on those days when it's cloudy and total shade
is not needed.
The second shading method, jikagise, is used by small growers
and family gardens to shade smaller sections. Basically jikagise is
a cloth used to wrap the bushes row by row. The cloth is tied down and floats just
above the bushes.
To access the plants it must be rolled back one section at a time, making it more time
consuming and cumbersome to deal with, so it's not practical for use in larger
applications, but is fine for smaller gardens.
|The pluck for tencha (made into the highest grade matcha) is a bud and three leaves,
which includes slightly older leaves to add a bit of character to the finished flavor of
matcha. For gyokuro the pluck is a bud and two leaves.
Basically production of tencha and gyokuro is the same but for one step. Both tencha
and gyokuro are steamed and dried, but tencha is not rolled. This is because the tencha
leaf must remain flat for removal of the stems and veins, after which it's ground into silky smooth ceremonial grade
Gyokuro is a lightly sweet, rich tea with uniquely Japanese vegetal flavor, that goes through a series of unique steps
from rolling to separating and drying, to end with its characteristic thin needle-like appearance and deep green color.
Because of this complicated growing, harvesting, and processing, both gyokuro and
tencha (matcha) go through, they are at once Japan's most loved and expensive teas.
There's even a yearly competition among gyokuro connoisseurs to crown the best
So, if by chance you get to try one or both of these outstanding teas, you can rest
assured that with everything that has gone into making them, they're worth every
single penny. Enjoy.
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No reproductions of any kind allowed without permission.
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|For more information or to learn more about tea, visit our other pages:
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When did tea first arrive in Japan?
Which country's teas are known as "the cup that cheers," and why?
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What type of tea is Golden Monkey and where is it made?
How is oolong tea made?
Where is Ceylon black tea grown?
How should tea be stored?
Can tea be used in cooking?
Which Taiwan tea is gnawed by a leaf hopper as part of its production?
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